Lighting Design for Kitchens

Kitchens have become the main gathering place in many homes. Families congregate to eat, work, and talk. Entertaining has become more informal where guests are involved in the meal-making process instead of waiting in the living room.

The way it was……………

Today’s homeowners are much more-informed about how lighting affects their environments than they were thirty years ago. Back then, a single fixture in the center of the space was the accepted way to light a kitchen. Twenty years ago, track lighting came into vogue and was considered to be the answer to all lighting problems.

Now the limitations of track lighting are apparent, especially in lighting kitchens. Typically, a run of track is located down the center of the kitchen area, while the fixtures are directed towards cabinets and countertops. The main problem of this lighting is shadowing; the moment people walk in-between the light and the task area, they block the light and cast shadows onto the work surfaces. Another problem is glare; most track fixtures are not adequately baffled to shield the brightness of the lamp. (Lamp is the technical term for bulb).

Another aesthetic concern is that track lighting lowers the ceiling visually which makes the room seem more cramped.

Integrating light……………

The choice of lighting fixtures for the kitchen is affected by many factors. Not only do such variables as ceiling height, natural light availability, and location of work surfaces determine the placement or amount of light the homeowner will require, but there are other considerations to help make educated choices. Here is checklist.

Color

The darker the finished surfaces are, the more light absorptive they become. An all white kitchen is going to require dramatically less light than a kitchen with dark wood cabinets.

Reflectance

A highly polished counter top acts just like a mirror. Any under cabinet lighting will shadow its reflection. All that one will see is lighting hardware, and not the beautiful polished granite surface.

Texture

If the end design includes brick work or stucco, one might choose to show off the textural quality of those surfaces. This is accomplished by directing light at an acute angle to the textured surface.

Mood

Floor plans are more open now. Guests will flow from the living room to the kitchen to the dining room. The kitchen should be just as inviting as the rest of the house. Make sure that there is enough ambient light in the kitchen. This softens the lines on people’s faces and creates a warm, inviting glow.

Tone

The warm end of the color spectrum works well with incandescent light, but cooler colors are affected by the amber quality of incandescent light. Blues turn green and reds can turn orange.

Windows

Windows that let wonderful light stream in during the day while showing off landscapes will become black reflective holes at night, unless some thought is given to exterior lighting.

Sloped ceilings

Even if there is enough space above the sloped ceiling to install recessed fixtures, special care must be taken to select fixtures that don’t glare into people’s eyes.

Pot racks

A pot rack may look just perfect over that center island on the plan, but makes lighting the work surface difficult as the pots and pans will cast shadows.

Door swings

Make sure that the switches end up on the unhinged side of door. Otherwise, people will have to reach around the back of the door in order to turn on the light.

Appliance outlets

Often kitchens are laid out with appliances such as refrigerators and microwave ovens fitting flush to the wall. Make sure regressed receptacles are specified. Otherwise, additional space will be required to allow for the dimension of the cord and plug.

Computer

If a computer is going to be used, make sure a dedicated circuit is provided. This helps avoid voltage drop and subsequent memory loss.

The clearer the concept of how one desires the kitchen to look and how one wants it to function, the easier it is for the homeowner and design team to create a space that suite the needs of those living in the space.

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Lighting Design for Dining Room

When friend come over for the evening, often the excitement is centered around the meal. Great lighting can make even the most humble meal a star. Just as in successful restaurants, ambiance is an important factor. If people feel good and comfortable in a restaurant, they tend to subconsciously include that factor in the establishment’s overall appeal.

At home, the same principles apply. Typically, a dining room will be illuminated by a chandelier. The problem is that this single light source is usually turned up so high that its glare overpowers the room visually, eclipsing everything else. The solution is to add fill light and highlighting so that the chandelier can be just a sparking glow while giving the illusion of providing the room’s light.

Lighting techniques

The necessary general illumination can come from wall scones, torchieres, or cove lighting. Some manufactures include a second source of indirect light inside their chandeliers, which is switched separately from the candle part, so that each can be dimmed or brightened to a pleasant level.

Feature lighting, such as recessed adjustable fixtures or tracking light fixtures, will highlight art and the centerpiece to add a dramatic touch.

More than a dining room

In reality, the dining room table often becomes a work space when the owners are not entertaining. The availability of a bright indirect light will provide excellent shadowless illumination for when bills are being paid or tax records are being sorted out. Controllable light lets the dining room serve whatever purpose is desired.

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Living Room Lighting Design Ideas

The living room should be a soft island of illumination that invites people in to relax and converse. Layering the light creates an environment that is humanizing and dramatic at the same time. Wall sconces and torchieres can generally provide the ambient illumination, which softens shadows on people’s faces. Recessed adjustable fixtures or track lighting can be utilized to provide the necessary accent light.

This should be the most dazzling of the rooms, with the greatest variety of moods available from the lighting.

There will be times when the look will be bright and warm as if a roaring fire were filling the room with soft illumination.

People are naturally drawn to light, so they congregate where there is the greatest amount of illumination.

Other occasions call for a more intimate feeling. The ambient lights are dimmed and the accent lights are brightened. This helps make a larger space seem cozier for a smaller gathering.

The way it was……………

As most of us were growing up, the living room was an off-limits area, used only when company came. There was a certain austerity or coldness about it that kept everybody out. Much of this had to do with the lighting itself. Usually, there were two table lamps on either side of the sofa and an additional one on top of a chest or a floor lamp next to a chair. Each had its own linen shade.

When you turned on the lamps, these shades visually overpowered the room causing everything else to fall into secondary focus. They also created a glare factor which made the space uncomfortable.

Layering With Lighting……………

With the introduction of light layering where specific fixtures perform specific functions, the decorative fixture, such as table lamps and chandeliers can be dimmed to a glow of light without dominating the space.

The most important light for the living room is ambient light. This is what does the best job of humanizing the room. It fills the volume of the room with light so it seems as large and open as possible while, at the same time, softening the shadows on people’s faces so that they look their best.

The second part of the layering approach is accent light. These particular recessed fixtures would hightlight objects in the room, such as art, sculpture, plants, and tabletops. They are what add dramatic dimension to a space. Without this type of lighting, the room would appear flat, the way the outside looks on a cloudy day. On the other hand, without ambient light the space would have a museum-like quality where all the objects are illuminated but the seating areas and people are in darkness. This is why both types of lighting are essential.

A third necessary function is task light. This is light by which you do work, such as reading, sewing, or writing. In a living room situation, pharmacy-type reading lamps by the chairs or sofa would be used for reading, and a light above a bar would allow some work light on the countertop.

Once these three aspects of lighting have been incorporated into the chandeliers, candlestick wall sconces, and attractive table lamps can do what they do best – be decorative. They are what add sparkle to a well-lighted room.

 

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Retail Store Lighting Solution

One way of introducing the customer to these objects of desire is through the use of lighting. The designer needs to suggest t o the customers that this is the store that they have all been looking for. The lighting design must make the objects of desire even more desirable.

There is considerable research about how people behave while shopping. For example, some of these who study shopping movement patterns have suggested that faced with alternative pathways into a large store interior, most customers will choose to turn light, rather than go left or straight on. Color theorists also have views about how combinations of color reflect different personalities, and that these combinations should be selected as appropriate to the target consumer group.

If the shop window provides a first opportunity to draw the customer’s attention, then the entrance is the second step in closing the encounter with the customer: the gateway to the goods on display. The degree of attention the customer is shown or experts is partly a matter of cultural convention (lift attendants, for example, have virtually disappeared from department stores in Europe, but no respectable Japanese store would be complete without its host of welcomers to greet clients). The nature of the products offered also affects how the customer is met: one expects personal service in exclusive jewelry shop but not in a push-your-own-trolley supermarket! This requirement has an impact, in turn, on the lighting requirements for the entrance space which needs to lead seamlessly into the main display area or areas.

Thus, the lighting designer needs to conceive of the total lighting solution for the shop as a complete system: the emphasis may differ at different points, particularly in a store selling different ranges of goods over a large floor area or several floors, and if, as is so often the case today in large stores, there are in-store concession sites for particular manufacturer’s products. On a large site, these choices can have important consequences for lighting maintenance: one major London department store as a matter of policy only uses eight different lamps, though in a wide range of fittings, so reducing storage space for spare lamps and the risk of incorrect relamping. These practical considerations, as well as questions such as the accessibility of fittings, heat dispersal and so forth; all need to form part of the lighting plan.

Getting the ambience right for the intended customers is a major part of the overall marketing strategy of the shop, and it is the lighting designer’s task to find the correct solution to meet this requirement. In some cases, the demand will be for a bright and engaging, busy and cheerful approach, or alternatively, for something discreet and cool, or for color and activity. The solution adopted will not only have to work at the entrance to the shop, but can also be a valuable reinforcement of the strategic marketing approach in intermediate areas such as stairways and escalators. The treatment of these elements, and other architectural features, can help focus customer attention on the central retail experience.

Color plays an important role in shop interior design. It can be used to set the mood, as well as to mark the difference between sections of the shop. The selection of colors needs to be made with the intended merchandise in mind, and the lighting designer should be consulted early in this process as the choice of colors can relate to the suitability of different lamps. For example, metal halide lamps, which have a relatively high color temperature, are better for lighting dark colors, such as blues and greens, while LED lamps, give god color resolution for softer colors such as reds and yellows. Since both display colors and merchandise colors in a shop are likely to change with time and fashion, it is a good principle to provide for as wide a range of alternatives as the lighting budget will allow. This can be done, for example, by specifying multiple circuit track, rather than single circuit, by choosing spotlights that can be redirected easily, either on track or from fixed positions, and by selecting fittings that can be fitted with different lamps to provide different color renderings. Many lamp manufactures are now producing lamps (such as low-voltage compact fluorescents with integral transformers) that can be retrofitted into standard mains fittings.

Staircases offer an opportunity for both architectural and lighting design flair. The change of level and pace offers the customer a new vantage point from the staircase, both visually and mentally. A series of steps can also draw the customer to explore the store, as at the Kenzo shop in London. Spotlights are used to highlight the steel and glass staircase at Bergdorf Goodman in New York, designed by Eva Jiricna, and central downlighters create a white cage at the Ted Lepidus store in Caracas, designed in the late 1960s – good classical design does not date.

Escalator can be both a transport necessity and a visual horror. A necessity, in that they need to be well lit for safety reasons and to clarify a position in the shop. Horrors, as the materials from which they are constructed are often highly reflective. But an enterprising designer can turn these features into something positive, either by using colored or pinpoint lighting, or by using precise reflections from moving parts to animate the setting. In the same way that an entrance can be lit so as to invite the customer in, a functional transport system can be used to keep the customer’s interest, maintaining the level of curiosity about the goods yet to be seen.

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LED Lights Become More and More Popular

When we bought light bulbs, the salesmen are used to say to us that needing a bright bulb you should choose one with higher number of watts. For example, the conventional 100 watt incandescent light bulb will be brighter than the 60 watt incandescent bulb. It is because higher power consumption the incandescent bulb is, hotter the filament will be, it glows brighter. But, now, as there are more and more high efficient light bulbs come to daily life, the situation is changed.

To get a fully understand of the concept of brightness, we should first learn about the luminous flux (in lumens). A lumen is the amount of light intensity falling on one square foot of area measured one foot away. It is not only a good way to tell us how bright a light bulb can be, but also much helpful when taking comparison between different light sources. For instance, a conventional 100 watt incandescent bulb can create approximate 1,700 lumens, while an 18 watt LED light bulb or a 25 compact fluorescent light bulb can produce the same amount of lumens. With fast development of LED lighting industry, the efficiency of LED can be over 100 lumens per watt in the market. In the lab, efficiency of LED is over 200 lumens per watt. It’s 2 times higher than the efficiency of CFL, and 10 times higher when comparing to incandescent bulbs. Base on this calculation, by replacing incandescent or halogen bulbs by LED, you save over 85% electricity cost. Here is a cost comparison between 100 watt incandescent bulb and its equivalent 18 LED light replacement.

The cost of traditional 100 watt incandescent bulb for a single year (we assume it is on 12 hours per day):
100 watts x 12 hours x 365 days = 438,000 watts
As the electricity charge is $0.2 per KWH, so now, convert 438,000 watts to kilowatts
438,200 watts / 1000 = 438 kilowatts
438 kilowatts X $0.2 = $87.6
The cost 18 watt LED light bulb for a single year (we assume it is on 12 hours per day):
18 watts x 12 hours x 365 days= 78,840 watts
As the electricity charge is $0.2 per KWH, so now, convert 78,840 watts to kilowatts
78,840 watts / 1000 =78.84 kilowatts
78.84 kilowatts X $0.2 = $15.77

We can see clearly that LED bulb can save us$87.6-$15.77= $71.83 for single year use. As the lifespan of LED for lighting is over 50,000 hours (more than ten years).The total electricity bill LED light bulb can save will be tremendous.

But we should not stop the comparisons only at electricity bills. We should take another important consideration, the color temperature, which can form a big part of the choice to go with one or the other. The incandescent lighting sources emit yellowish light, while the old-style compact fluorescent lights product a greenish light because of the mercury vapor. Different from both of them, the LEDs are closer than either. They have the ability to product light waves at specific frequency ranges, so that the colors are more vivid of all light forms.

Although at present, the LED lights are still very expensive. But, as the price continues to come down year by year, they look better and better, especially for those long-term applications.

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How to Pick up RGB LED Strips

RGB LED strips have wide applications. In the commercial use, they are wide used in bars, clubs, and the high-level hotels. When they come to household uses, they are usually used to decorate the kitchen and the living room. They allow you to use more of their imaginations. You can create mood light in your home to your own taste, for instance, enlightening the edges of furniture, illuminating the corridor, staircase and steps. They are also the perfect lighting solution for the under cabinet in the kitchen, as they can be easily installed and occupy less space.

In general, a RGB LED strip kit includes the RGB LED strips (obviously) and the matching RGB controller, which is use to control and adjust brightness, static color choices and various dynamic changes in lighting effects. Some simple GRB LED strips have a set of fixed integrated circuits which have been pre-programmed the color display effects.

Once you decide on going for RGB LED strips, there are several technical details you should pay attentions to. Since the LED strips work at low voltage direct circuits, you need to use an appropriated transformer to transform the mains to constant low voltage (usually is DC 12 volt, some strips work at 24 volt DC or 5 volt DC). To pick up a proper power supply, you need to figure out the quantity of LEDs of the strip. A piece of SMD 5050 LED packages three light-emitting chips inside the package. And it will consume 0.08W per light-emitting chip. So in theory, it will consume 0.24 watts of power for a SMD 5050 LED. To calculate the total power consumption, just multiply the quantity of LEDs by the wattage of specific type of LED. For instance, one reel (16.4ft) of RGB SMD 5050 LED strips 300 LEDs will consume 300X0.24=72 Watts, in this case, you need a more powerful transformer than 72 watts, such as 90 watt transformer. By analogy, you can figure out how much wattage your LED transformer need to be. Other important parameters include waterproof rate, beam angle, Luminous flux, color ranges.

The other component of RGB LED strip is the RGB controller, since it determines the performance of strips. One of the technical parameters of controller you should pay attentions to is its output wattage, which will determine how many LEDs can be controlled. Take the RGB controller with 96 watt output voltage for example, and let us assume the strip is 7 watts per meter, the RGB controller can only connect 96/7 = 13.7 meters of strip. In this case, if you wish to control much longer of strip, but synchronized together, you will need an amplifier to forward the control signal.

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Light Distribution, Intensity and Diffusion

Light distribution is a function both of the lamp and the fitting, since in most cases the fitting controls the direction and the power of the light source. The designer needs to understand the distribution pattern of a particular fitting and this is best achieved by looking at a diagram called a polar curve for the fitting in question. This plots the outline and intensity of light from a specific fitting.

The intensity of light falling on a particular surface, for example a workshop, sales point, or display is translated by looking at the incident light falling on it in lumens. There are guidelines available for the desired level of lighting in different work and retail situations; in some case these are linked to official regulations, and the designer needs to be aware of these.

Some recommended levels of lighting are as follows: the recommended level of illuminance in lux (one lumen per square meter) for small shops is 500 lux, for supermarkets and hypermarkets it is the same amount, calculated on vertical faces of displays, and for checkout areas also 500 lux calculated on the horizontal plane of the checkout or sales area. These can be compared with levels of 150 lux, deemed appropriate for areas such as loading bays, 750 lux for drawing offices, and 1,500 lux for hand tailoring, operating theatres and suchlike.

The diffusion of light refers to the overall level of lighting achieved in a scheme by the complete installation. Computer programs are now widely available for calculating these results, and for testing alternative solutions for a specific interior space.

To calculate lighting values exactly, lamp and lighting manufacturers have created programs that will produce an outline of lighting levels in a regular space from exact technical data. These programs allow the architect or designer to check that lighting distribution and levels meet, for example, health and safety requirements. However, such programs do not produce a rendered image, so that the visualization process is incomplete. High-end graphics programs can create visually appealing images, either from CAD data or from the designer’s eye and technical programs can describe the lighting solutions exactly. What remained to be done was to marry the two up so that the designer could show a client an accurate view of the project.

Two recent programs have squared this particular circle. The first, Lightscape, is a stand-alone program. It offers a series of libraries of surfaces, elements and light fittings that can be assembled to replicate an interior and can then be lit. The complete radiosity program calculates the lighting effect accurately and from all positions. Lightscape are also regularly releasing further libraries that contain both architectural elements and specific light fittings to extend and enhance the range of luminaires that can be used under lightscape.

Radioray, developed for Autodesk by the UK Company LightWorks, is a plug-in for 3DStudioMax and 3DStudioViz. This also allows precise light fittings to be inserted into interiors created in 3DStudio, using the industry standard elx file extension. These files, created by lamp and fitting manufacturers, contain complete photogrammetric data allowing the exact performance of a lamp and fitting to be depicted. So in a finalized and rendered design, precise lux values can be read off walls and work surfaces, and the colour and diffusion of light are also visually accurate. Again, since this is a radiosity program, the values are created for all viewpoints.

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LED Lights – The Trend of Lighting Applications

There is no doubt that LED is the trend of lighting applications in the further. With minimum impact on the environment and high efficiency, LED lights are becoming more and more popular. Though LED potential can be traced back about one hundred years ago, the practical applications are just developed in past years.

To fully understanding why the LED has the great advantages compared with some traditional lighting sources, you may need the background of optoelectronic knowledge. This is not the things we are going to discuss here. Just as a common consumer, what we really care about are their practical advantages we can benefit from in our daily lives. Here I list the five main advantages of LED lights as blow:

The biggest reason people choose LED light to replace the traditional light is that LED can save a lot of energy. It means that with LED applications, less resources will be consume, less money the consumers need to pay on their electrical bills. It is simple to explain: we used to use 60 watt incandescent bulb for household use, but now, to achieve the same lighting effect (same lumens), we just only need 7 watt LED light bulb as a replacement. It sounds a little incredible, but that is the true. In the lab, the efficiency of LED can reach to 200lumens/watt, ten higher than the incandescent can achieve. This is the biggest selling points for LED manufactures to promote their products.

LED lights are Friendly to the environment. As we have mentioned above, LED consume less powers to produce the same lumen light, less powers means less resources will be taken to generate electricity. In addition, the pollutions caused by LED lights are negligible especially comparing with the fluorescent lights, which contain the mercury contents. We all know the mercury significantly pollute our water. To protect the environment from such pollution, eco-friendly LED lighting is the solution to this issue.

Long lifespan is another attractive point. In general, the incandescent own a life cycle ranging from 1,200 hours to 2,500 hours. The fluorescent lights may be celebrated to announce have a capacity of working about 12,000 hours. Don’t be stunning about this figure too early, as the LED lights prolong it to 50,000 hours. You might need to replace one or two incandescent bulbs every single year, but when use LED lights, forget it, since they can last for decades.

While we are talking about its high-efficiency, eco-friendly, long lifespan, all right, they are good, but what is the cost? Years ago, the LED lights are too expensive to purchase for the householder. Only some up-scale hotels and shopping malls can bear high prices. But as the rapid development of LED industry, the costs are now significantly reduced. that is why we are now often see the news reports that government slash the cost of municipal projects by introducing LED lighting applications. So in a word, for a long run, the LED lights are less expensive than traditional light sources.

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A Brief Guide to Install LED Lighting Strips on Motorcycle

With the fast development of LED industry in the past few years, the sale prices of LED lights are significantly reduced, and they are now widely used in kinds of areas, especially in automotive and motorcycles’ lighting applications. As the LEDs has less power consumption and a longer service lifespan compared with other traditional lighting sources, they has became the favorite choices for many drivers, who like to use them to decorate their loved autos or motorcycles. With basic electrical knowledge, you can easily install LED lights. Now, as a super LED lighting DIYer, I will give a brief guide to install LED lighting strips on motorcycle.

The components and tools you will need for this lighting project:
6 pcs LED flexible grill lighting strips
Remote relay box (already contain the boat fuse, antenna wire)
5 amp fuse
2 pcs connector boxes
Enough lead wires
Double-sided VHB taps

Here is there step-by-step guide:

Step 1:
Disconnect the battery on your motorcycle, it is usually placed under the seat, you can easily locate it.

Step 2
Prepare the LED strips. You can first place on the ground.

Step 3
Test the LED lighting strips to make sure all of them can work well. To do that, you just need to connect the positive lead wire of LED strip to the positive terminal of the motorcycle’s battery, and the negative lead wire of LED strip to the negative terminal of battery, and then to see whether it can light on. Sometimes, you might find that some LED strips don’t light on in this connecting way, try reversed connection, as some manufacture might happened to make reversed wires.

Step 4
Install the LED light strips on your motorcycle. You can mount the strips wherever you like. If you are not sure whether it can reach to your expected effect, a great method is that you first hood up the LED strips to the battery and then to preview actual effect. After you satisfied positions, just secure the LED strip with dual-sided VHB taps.

Step 5
Route the lead wires along the frame of the motorcycle until they are close to the battery.

Step 6
In the relay box, you will find 5 wires, 2 black, 1 white, 1 red, and 1 blue. Connect the red wire to the fuse boat which will be filled with 5 amp fuses in following step. Select either one black lead wire to connect to the negative terminal of the battery. The blue one is the antenna wire, and you just strap it along the main motorcycle’s frame. The remaining black and white wire is used to plug into one of the quick connectors of each wire junction box respectively. You can see the diagram below.


Step 7
After checking all the wires are connected correctly, install the 5 amp fuse into the fuse boat, and turn on the battery, and enjoy the wonderful LED lighting.

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Share My LED Lighting DIY Experience

One of my hobbies is LED DIY. Because my major in the university is about electronic, I have been being crazy for LED DIY projects. I have made a lot of LED light fixtures for myself and my friends as well, simply and ugly at very beginning time, and then gradually complex and delicate. It not only gives me the painful failure feeling, but also the joy of harvest. Here I write to share my DIY LED lighting experience with all of you.

There is no doubt that the LED (light emitting diode) is the direction of energy-saving illumination industry. It will replace the many current illuminate systems in the near future. But until now the prices of LED lighting still high compared with traditional fluorescent or incandescent lighting sources. The LED manufacturing companies become more and more in recent years both at home and abroad. The quality of various brands varied much, so you should pay a great attention when choose the LED lighting for your DIY project, since it affects the lighting effects and lighting lifetimes greatly. In my opinion, it is better to buy LED lighting packed with famous-brand LED chips, such as Cree, edition, as far as your finance will allow. Certainly, the same LED chip with different lumen values can vary significantly, take the 3 watt LED chip for example, the lumen values varied from 80 to 200, the prices differs however more than one times between the one with highest lumen value and the one with lowest lumen value. So when buying the LED lights, you should ascertain the exact lumens it can product, tried to purchase from high reputable LED light stores. Some DIYers prefer to buy the lighting with lens, which l don’t recommend, as it will affect the brightness, how to solve this issues? You can ask to customize the lighting to be with small bean angle, as the larger the bean angle is, the shorter distance the lighting can reach, the smaller the bean angle is, the longer distance the lighting can reach. I usually customize the bean angle to be 90 degrees, so the scope and distance is moderate.

The LED driver is another focus for many DIYers, people may like to buy the constant voltage drivers also known as switch drivers, as they are cheaper and easy to buy. But I can tell you that the constant current drivers are the best choice. Because it is impossible to make the internal resistance in LEDs to be same, if use the constant voltage driver, different LEDs will consume varied voltages, the light degradation of the high-voltage LEDs are very serious, even burning out the LED chips. The reason LED can emit light is the current, generally, for 3 watt LED lighting, the most effective current is about 700MA. LED circuits have two types, parallel and serial, respectively. When purchasing the constant-voltage drivers, you need to calculate the total voltages you need, in general, one common LED light might consume about 3.6 volts, and the total voltage for 5 pcs LED lights will be about 18 volts. If buying constant-voltage drivers, you’d better to choose dimmable ones. For the constant-current drivers, the more channels it can driver for, the more expensive it is, so just buy according to actual needs.

The heat dissipation is biggest headache for most LED DIYers. The lighting burning out and rapid light degradation have a big relation with the heat dissipation issues. You need to solve this issue as well as you can for your lighting project. Some LED products have good appearances, but with bad heat dissipation design. To avoid this situation, you’d better to use professional radiators.



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